It would seem that the barometer needs mostly sailors. However, it has long been settled down in the living rooms and offices of people who know an expert in the design, because this device an important element of the interior. In addition, a barometer, a wonderful gift, a stylish and useful. It determines the pressure, predicts the weather, create a mood. And besides, this modest subject has a fascinating history connected with the history of science, religion, shipping and Design.
The word “barometer” is derived from the Greek word «baros» (weight) and the Greek word «metron» (Dimension). At the beginning of XVII century, many scientists have independently studied the vacuum and atmospheric pressure. However, the first in 1643 described a prototype of the modern barometer young scientist Evan gelista Torricelli. Torricelli conducted experiments based on recordings of the astronomer Galileo Galilei. He discovered that if you create in an inverted glass tube vacuum and fill it with liquid, the fluid level in it will rise or fall depending on changes in atmospheric pressure. Only here the size of the device Torricelli was enormous. In his instrument, he used water whose weight is relatively small, and had to make a flask of 10 meters high, it protruded from the roof of his house! While such an extravagance to no good argument. In the Italian quarter, where he lived, there was a rumor that a scientist engaged in witchcraft. Torricelli realized that the experience is better kept secret, but it needs a heavier weight fluid. He chose the mercury, which is 14 times heavier than water and allows the use of a smaller tube. Thus appeared the first mercury barometer.
However, this invention was not appreciated. While science and the church have been in constant conflict. In particular, the idea of a vacuum or empty space, was considered blasphemous because, according to the clerics, “God is everywhere, and the vacuum can not exist.” Not surprisingly, the Torricelli died in obscurity, his place of burial is unknown. Only a century later his scientific discoveries were recognized.
Torricelli concept developed by Robert Boyle, who was of an experimental unit has turned his home into a practical tool with a scale. Early barometers used as scientific instruments and had the appearance of the post, while in 1663-m Hook, a disciple of Boyle, did not invent the device in a circular enclosure. His advantage was in the presence of a large numbered dial, with which even the uneducated people can easily navigate the readings. In the middle of the XIX century round barometers almost pushed upright.